وَ مِنَ اللَّيْلِ فَتَهَجَّدْ بِهِ نَافِلَةَ لَكَ
“And in some parts of the night (also) offer the Salah with it as an additional prayer for you;” (Quran 17:79).
Here Allah commands him (the Prophet) to offer further prayers at night after the prescribed prayers.
It was reported in Sahih Muslim from Abu Hurayrah that:
when the Messenger of Allah was asked which prayer is best after the prescribed prayers, he said: صَلاَةُ اللَّيْل (The Night Prayer).
Allah commanded His Messenger to pray the Night prayer after offering the prescribed prayers, and the term Tahajjud refers to prayer that is offered after sleeping.
This was the view of Alqamah, Al-Aswad, Ibrahim An-Nakha`i and others.
It is also well-known from the Arabic language itself.
A number of Hadiths report that the Messenger of Allah used to pray Tahajjud after he had slept. These include reports from Ibn Abbas, A’ishah and other Companions, may Allah be pleased with them.
Al-Hasan Al-Basri said, “This is what comes after `Isha’, or it could mean what comes after sleeping.”
an additional prayer (Nawafil):
means the Night prayer has been made an extra prayer specifically for the Prophet, because all his previous and future sins had been forgiven.
But for other members of his Ummah, offering optional prayers may expiate for whatever sins they may commit.
This was the view of Mujahid, and it was reported in Al-Musnad from Abu Umamah Al-Bahili.
عَسَى أن يَبْعَثَكَ رَبُّكَ مَقَامًا مَّحْمُودًا
“It may be that your Lord will raise you to Maqam Mahmud;” 17:79.
meaning, `do that which you are commanded to do, and We will raise you to a station of praise and glory (Maqam Mahmud) on the Day of Resurrection, where all of creation will praise you,’ as will their Creator, may He be glorified and exalted.
Ibn Jarir said,
“Most of the commentators said, `This is the position to which Muhammad will be raised on the Day of Resurrection, to intercede for the people so that their Lord will relieve them of some of the hardships they are facing on that Day.”’
It was reported that Hudhayfah said,
“Mankind will be gathered in one arena, where they will all hear the call and will all be seen. They will be standing barefoot and naked as they were created, and no person shall speak except by the leave of Allah. He will call out, `O Muhammad,’ and he will respond,
لَبَّيْكَ وَ سَعْدَيْتَ وَ الْخَيْرُ فِي يَدَيْكَ و الشَّرُّ لَيْسَ إلَيْكَ وَ الْمَهدِيُّ مَنْ هَدَيْتَ وَ عَبْدُكَ بَيْنَ يَدَيْكَ وَ مِنْكَ وَ إلَيْكَ لا مَنْجَى وَ لا مَلْجًا مِنْكَ إلاَّ إلَيْكَ تَبَارَكْتَ وَ تَعَالَيْتَ سُبْحَانَكَ رَبَّ الْبَيْت
At your service, all goodness is in Your Hands and evil is not to be attributed to You. The one who is guided is the one whom You guide. Your servant is before You, from You, and to You and there is no salvation or refuge from You except with You. May You be blessed and exalted, Glory be to You, Lord of the House (the Ka`bah).
This is the position of praise and honor (Maqam Mahmud) which was mentioned by Allah.”
Ibn Abba said:
“The position of praise and honor is the position of intercession.”
Ibn Abi Najih reported something similar from Mujahid, and this was also the view of Al-Hasan Al-Basri.
“He is the first one for whom the earth will be opened on the Day of Resurrection, and he will be the first to intercede.”
So the scholars consider this the position of praise and glory to which Allah referred in the Ayah:
عَسَى أن يَبْعَثَكَ رَبُّكَ مَقَامًا مَّحْمُودًا
It may be that your Lord will raise you to Maqam Mahmud.
I, Ibn Kathir, say:
the Messenger of Allah will have honors in the Day of Resurrection in which no one else will have a share, honors which will not be matched by anyone else.
- He is the first one for whom the earth will be opened and he will come forth riding to the gathering place.
- He will have a banner under which Adam and anyone else will gather, and
- he will have the Hawd (Lake) to which no one else will have more access than he.
- He will have the right of the Grand Intercession with Allah when He comes to judge between His creation. This will be after the people ask Adam, then Nuh, then Ibrahim, then Musa, then `Isa to intercede, and each of them will say, “I am not able for that.”
They ask you (O Muhammad) about the crescents. Say: “These are signs to mark fixed periods of time for mankind and for the pilgrimage;” (2:189).
يَسْلُونَكَ عَنِ الأهِلَّةِ قُلْ هِيَ مَوَاقِيتُ لِلنَّاسِ وَ الْحَجِّ
Al-Awfi related that Ibn Abbas said,
“The people asked Allah’s Messenger about the crescent moons. Thereafter, this Ayah was revealed, so that they mark their acts of worship, the Iddah (the period of time a divorced woman or a widow is required to wait before remarrying) of their women and the time of their Hajj (pilgrimage to Makkah).”
Abdur-Razzaq reported that Ibn Umar narrated that Allah’s Messenger said:
Allah has made the crescents signs to mark fixed periods of time for mankind.
جَعَلَ اللهُ الأهِلَّة مَوَاقِيتَ لِلنَّاسِ
Hence, fast on seeing it (the crescent for Ramadan) and break the fast on seeing it (the crescent for Shawwal).
فَصُومُواْ لِرُؤْيَتِهِ وَ أفْطِرُواْ لِرُؤْيَتِهِ
If it (the crescent) was obscure to you then count thirty days (mark that month as thirty days).
فَإنْ غُمَّ عَلَيْكُمْ فَعُدُّواْ ثَلاَثِينَ يَوْمًا
This Hadith was also collected by Al-Hakim in his Mustadrak, and he said, “The chain is Sahih, and they (Al-Bukhari and Muslim) did not recorded it.”